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Gingival Hypertrophy Associated with Amlodipine Use in
an HIV-Infected Woman

David M Jacobs, Joan M Duggan, Eric G Sahloff

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Objective: To report the case of a 46-year-old woman with HIV infection who developed gingival hypertrophy while taking amlodipine for hypertension and review the literature discussing gingival hypertrophy associated with amlodipine and other calcium channel blockers.

Case Summary: A 46-year-old HIV-infected female was taking amlodipine 5 mg daily to manage hypertension. After 4 1/2 years of exposure to amlodipine, the patient presented with new-onset gingival hypertrophy. Concurrent medications included atazanavir, ritonavir, tenofovir/emtricitabine, a multivitamin, and ibuprofen and tramadol as needed. Amlodipine was discontinued and lisinopril was initiated to manage hypertension. Resolution of gingival hypertrophy was noted at 3- and 12-month follow-up visits.

Discussion: Drug-induced gingival hypertrophy has been associated with anticonvulsants, immunosuppressants, and calcium channel blockers. Cases of gingival hypertrophy are uncommon, especially after such extended exposure. The Naranjo probability scale classified the reaction as probable. Discontinuation of amlodipine led to resolution of gingival hypertrophy.

CONCLUSIONS: Patients with new-onset gingival hypertrophy should have a complete medication review to identify potential causative agents. Development of gingival hypertrophy may present acutely or with extended exposure. Resolution of gingival hypertrophy generally occurs with discontinuation of the inciting agent.

J Pharm Technol 2013;29:175-7

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